Sleep requirements in children

How much sleep does your child need? This depends on your child’s age, for the most part. Sleep requirements are also dependent on the individual child. Some children don’t need as much sleep as others do.

 

What are your child’s sleep requirements? Even the experts don’t know for sure.

Sleep has a big impact on our well-being, so it’s understandable that parents want to know if their kids are getting enough. Recent research suggests that something as simple as a well-timed nap makes a difference in how much preschoolers learn (Kurdziel et al 2013). Naps may also enhance learning in babies.

But while it’s clear that sleep is important, there is no easy formula for calculating your child’s personal sleep needs. In fact, the most surprising thing about sleep requirements is how little we know about them (Hunt 2003).

The official-looking recommendations we see everywhere, like the ones in the box below from National Sleep Foundation, are often based on studies of how much time people spend in bed. The charts don’t tell us how much of this time is actually spent sleeping.

Nor do they tell us about how sleep varies cross-culturally. Typically, recommendations about sleep requirements are based on surveys of Western populations (e.g., Blair et al 2012; Iglowstein et al 2003; Armstrong et al 1994; Roffwarg et al 1966).

Most importantly, the charts can’t tell us what your individualized needs are.

Knowing how much time people spend in bed is somewhat helpful, but it doesn’t tell us if these people are getting the right amount of sleep.



As the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research has noted, we need large-scale, controlled studies that measure both sleep and biological outcomes (Hunt 2003). Unfortunately, such studies are uncommon.

Notable exceptions are recent studies focusing on behavior problems and obesity.

For example, a study of 297 Finnish families with children aged 5-6 years, researchers found that kids who slept less than 9 hours each day had 3-5 times the odds of developing attention problems, behavior problems, and other psychiatric symptoms (Paavonen et al 2009).

Another recent study tracked the development of obesity in young children.

In that study, researchers recorded the body weights and sleep habits of kids under five years of age. Then, five years later, they measured the kids again.

The study revealed a link between sleep loss and obesity. Kids who’d gotten less than 10 hours of nighttime sleep at the beginning of the study were twice as likely to become overweight or obese later on (Bell and Zimmerman 2010).

Moreover, researchers found that the timing of sleep mattered. When it came

– See more at: http://www.parentingscience.com/sleep-requirements.html

COIT’S GUIDE TO REMOVING INK STAINS FROM CARPET

“Have you been the victim of an ink stain? Try not to explode along with your pen. The written word may live on forever, but an ink stain doesn’t have to be permanent.­ Use these cleaning methods so you can experience a better ending. The first step in removing an ink stain is to identify the type of material or surface that is stained. Then use the following tips for optimal ink stain removal.

Removing Ink Stains from Carpet

Keeping household carpet clean is no easy task. From dirt, to food, to ink stains on carpet, your living room, bedrooms, and hallways are put to the test every day of the week.

So how do you get rid of annoying ink stains that leave your carpet looking dirty? The first step is to take action on the ink stain as soon as possible. The drier the ink, the harder it is to remove, so don’t hesitate once you discover it.

Using COIT’s Guide to removing ink stains from carpet, you’ll have step-by-step instructions to help you tackle tough spots.

HOW TO REMOVE BALL POINT INK STAINS FROM CARPET

If you have natural-fiber carpet, follow these steps to remove the ink stain:

  1. Buy two cans of cheap lacquer hair spray – you may need this much depending on how quickly the stain disappears.
  2. Spray the hairspray onto the ink stain. This will soften the ink.
  3. Using a white cloth towel, blot the lacquer. Do not scrub the stain; instead, repeat this process until the ink stain disappears.
  4. Once the area is dry, hand-brush the affected area and then vacuum. This should remove any traces of lacquer.

Read more: http://www.coit.com/spotremoval/how-to-remove-ink-stains-from-carpet

18 Proven Home Remedies to Get Rid of Mosquitoes

“Getting rid of mosquitoes entirely in your garden may prove very difficult, perhaps  impossible. Treatment of water and taking away potential standing water vessels are the most efficient steps but even if you manage to make your yard completely free of breeding spots mosquitoes can fly in from miles away. Of course misters and repellent devices can add to the mix allowing you to take matters in own hands. Which approach or product will be best will depend on your personal situation. By reading this list in which we dispel myths and list methods that really work we you are setting the first step into a mosquito free yard. Taking action will help you take back your yard so you can spend time with friends and family without the nuisances and health risks caused by these miserable little gits.”

home remedies to kill mosquitoes

Though mosquitoes are small and tiny creatures, they can ruin whole atmosphere. Mosquitoes can cause several dangerous and fatal diseases like malaria,dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, etc. The market is flooded with several chemical-laden mosquito repellents. These products can help you make your surroundings mosquito-free, but at the same time, they have negative effects on the environment. Here are some home remedies that are not only effective in getting rid of mosquitoes, but are also eco-friendly. Try them out!

HOME REMEDIES FOR MOSQUITOES

1. Dry Ice

The carbon dioxide that we exhale attracts mosquitoes. Dry ice emits a lot of carbon dioxide. So, place dry ice in a container and keep it at a certain distance. When all the mosquitoes are attracted towards that container, close the lid. While this can be a little time-consuming, but it is an effective method to drive away mosquitoes.

Read more: http://www.homeremedyhacks.com/18-proven-home-remedies-to-get-rid-of-mosquitoes/

How to Prepare for a Blackout

“You might have taken steps to make your home more energy efficient, but have you thought about how your household would cope with no electricity? You need to plan ahead by making sure you have alternative forms of heat and light, such as torches fitted with new batteries, candles and matches, battery-operated heaters or portable gas fires. However, be extra careful with open flames in the home; make sure you place them on a non-flammable surface away from curtains and soft furnishings, and never leave them unattended. A power outage can make us realize how much we rely on energy in our day-to-day life.”

How to prepare for a blackout | PreparednessMama

Sound advice from someone who’s been through several residential blackouts

I think it’s safe to say we’ve all experienced the power going out at some time. In my neighborhood, the lights always go out for a few minutes when there is a storm. A blackout is a power outage for an extended period of time. These are usually caused by winter storms and disasters.  Here is some sound advice from someone who’s been through several residential blackouts. Find out how to prepare before, during and after a blackout.

Prepare Before a Blackout

The first way to prepare for an outage is to help prevent them. Look for hazards that could fall and damage the power lines on your property. The simple act of keeping trees pruned and in good health can not only save your home in a severe storm but also keep power in the neighborhood.

Having a family emergency plan is the most important part of being prepared. Time to get out a pencil and write down where the manual release lever for you garage door is, so you can get in and out without power. Also, now is a good time to hide a spare key outside, especially if you rely on using your garage as an entry way.

Read more: http://preparednessmama.com/how-to-prepare-for-a-blackout/

 

10 Things You Do That Your Dog Hates

“Every dog deserves a warm and loving home. They come into our lives for in many ways: through pet adoption, as a loyal service dog, foster dog turned furry family member, or taken in after being abandoned. Regardless of how a dog becomes family, you love every whisker on their face as well as all the irritating things they do that make you want to pull your hair out. On the other hand, did you know there are a number of things you do that make your dog want to pull their fur out? That’s right, folks! Some of the things you do actually irritates your furry beasts. They just cannot express in words how crazy, unreasonable or how confusing you are being. Let’s take a look at ten things dogs don’t like humans doing, then tally up how many of them you are guilty of — innocently, of course.”

1

Although our canine friends love us unconditionally, there is a number of things you probably do that are driving your dog nuts. In order to keep Fido as your best friend, you need to know what these nasty and annoying habits are and try to get rid of them as quickly as possible.

1. Yelling At Him

Make sure you stop yelling at your dog and try switching to body language. We have evolved over time and became a primarily vocal species.
We simply love talking to and about other people, sometimes even behind their backs, but we need to understand that our pets respond better to body language and physical manifest of emotions, than to verbal communication.

Dogs are able to figure out the meaning of some key words we use daily (words like sit, stay, walk, treat, toy, off…), but they are not capable of completely understanding human language and all the messages it conveys. What they are true experts at, however, is being able to read our body language and decipher exactly what you’re thinking and feeling just by reading your body.

So next time you want to yell come! at your dog, try leaning forward and summoning him with your hand instead. It will work like a charm.

Read more: http://www.dognotebook.com/10-things-you-do-that-your-dog-hates/

11 Natural Ways to Get Rid of Mice

“Mice are small rodents about one inch long, with the typical mouse a brown or brownish-gray color. Mice can squeeze into a home through the smallest crack. Even a hole the size of a dime can admit one or two mice, and that’s all you need for an infestation One pair of mice produce up to six litters of babies per year, with an average of five mice per litter. Within a short amount of time, the typical home or apartment can be overrun with these pests. Often the first thing a homeowner notices that points towards a mouse infestation are holes gnawed or chewed into boxes or bags. If you pull out your loaf of bread, for example, you may notice a hole chewed right through the bag and the edges nibbled off the bread.”

Since the weather turned chilly, you can practically see mice families unloading their little U-hauls and setting up housekeeping in the nooks, crannies and hollows of our walls. Mr. Mod was on a rampage last night disinfecting every square inch of the kitchen. His mice catching technique is the old-fashioned one, not humane at all-peanut butter in a mouse trap.  (I really think he takes pleasure in flinging their limp bodies out into the woods–ick!) For the homeowner in need of kinder, gentler mice-ridding options, there are alternatives to the neck squishing snap. As long as a mouse can get his head through an opening, he can wriggle the rest of his body right on through. Not only do you have to catch them, you also need to deter and block them from entering.They’re and they can carry diseases you want NO part of.

Read more: http://www.curbly.com/users/modhomeecteacher/posts/9297-11-natural-ways-to-get-rid-of-mice

Broken Family Effects on Children

“Family is the basic unit of society. This is the most essential component of a country. A home is where a family lives. It may be alternated   to the word ‘house’ but a house is more appropriately referring to the material structure, whereas ‘home’ refers to the intangible things that bind together the family members. It is the immeasurable love and care that keeps together the mother, father and their children. However, no matter how ideal a family in the terms of their relationship, there are still hardships and misunderstandings that will come along the way. It is just part of any relationship anyway. But, the sad part is when one of the family members gave up and the others have no choice but to accept and let go. Thus, the family starts to be broken.”

Divorce is the hardest challenge that can happen to a couple especially if they have kids. It is painful for the husband and wife to finally end their marriage but they are two matured individuals who are strong enough to handle changes in their lives. The impact of this turn of events in a family’s life is more devastating on the children. Not only is that it painful for them on that moment to hear the news that their parents are getting a divorce. But the worst that can happen is the long term effect that can eventually ruin their future.

In most cases, usually one parent keeps custody of his/her children. But despite of that, the thought that they are no longer complete seem unacceptable. Here are some effects of a broken family on children:

  1. A broken home can make a child insecure. Insecure in a sense that he no longer had a complete family he can call his own. For a child’s mind, a family is composed of a father, mother and children. And living without either his father or mother will create fear and insecurities in him. This feeling of insecurities will even trigger if he is around his friends who are living a normal, complete and happy life. This is especially true in school events where the parents’ presence is required. There are plenty of school activities that involve the parents and seeing scenes like these will even make him feel ashamed of his family situation.

Read more: https://stuffyblog.wordpress.com/2012/08/24/broken-family-effects-on-children/

13 Signs You Need To Visit A Marriage Counselor

“Most couples wait too long before seeking help. In truth, you are best served if you seek help sooner rather than later. Negative communication and withdrawal can be equally detrimental. When conversations quickly turn negative, partners can feel depressed, insecure, and disregarded. Withdrawing from or avoiding conversation can have the same effect, and has the added negative result of making unspoken complaints increase in importance and severity as they remain unaddressed.”

We believe we’re getting the fairytale when we get married. You know — meet “the one,” have a whirlwind courtship, get married and live happily ever after. What the fairytales don’t tell you is that relationships take work.

Often times, we don’t go into a relationship with the tools to manage the challenges, which is where the pros come in. And by pros, I mean a counselor or therapist who can help you learn new ways of relating to your partner.

The question is: when do you know it’s time to consider marriage counseling? Here are some trigger points and behaviors that are signs you may need help.

1. When you aren’t talking. In all honesty, many relationship challenges are simply challenges in communication. A therapist can help facilitate new ways to communicate with each other. Once communication has deteriorated, often it is hard to get it going back in the right direction.

2. When you’re talking, but it’s always negative. Negative communication can include anything that leaves one partner feeling judged, shamed, disregarded, insecure or wanting to withdraw from the conversation. Negative communication also includes the tone of conversation because it’s not always what you say, but how you say it. Negative communication can escalate into emotional abuse as well as non-verbal communication.

Read more: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/06/02/marriage-counseling-_n_5412473.html

Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

“Today’s young people, our children, belong to the most promising generation in the history of the world. They stand at the summit of the ages. They also stand at the crossroads of two great paths. It’s appropriate for your teen to want to make her own decisions now, and to think for herself. And yet teens are still developing, and have widely varying levels of maturity. It can be a scary time for parents, especially those who don’t yet trust their teen’s judgment.”

teenager

Developmental Milestones

This is a time of changes for how teenagers think, feel, and interact with others, and how their bodies grow. Most girls will be physically mature by now, and most will have completed puberty. Boys might still be maturing physically during this time. Your teen might have concerns about her body size, shape, or weight. Eating disorders also can be common, especially among girls. During this time, your teen is developing his unique personality and opinions. Relationships with friends are still important, yet your teen will have other interests as he develops a more clear sense of who he is. This is also an important time to prepare for more independence and responsibility; many teenagers start working, and many will be leaving home soon after high school.

Here is some information on how teens develop:

Emotional/Social Changes

Children in this age group might:

  • Have more interest in the opposite sex.
  • Go through less conflict with parents.
  • Show more independence from parents.
  • Have a deeper capacity for caring and sharing and for developing more intimate relationships.
  • Spend less time with parents and more time with friends.
  • Feel a lot of sadness or depression, which can lead to poor grades at school, alcohol or drug use, unsafe sex, and other problems.

Read more: http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/adolescence2.html

Domestic Violence

“Women are more likely to experience domestic violence, forms of abuse occur between all kinds of couples, whether of the opposite or same sex, married or unmarried. While financial factors contribute to the problem, the causes of domestic violence involve psychological issues that we must deal with in order to stop the cycle of abuse. In addition to listening to this critical inner voice, couples involved in domestic violence have often forged a destructive connection, an illusion that they cannot live without each other.”

Domestic Violence

What’s the difference between normal conflict and domestic violence? Conflict is part of every intimate relationship–that’s why conflict resolution skills are important. Domestic violence, however, has no place in a healthy relationship, whether the couple is dating, engaged, married or cohabiting.

What is domestic violence?

Domestic violence is any kind of behavior that a person uses, or threatens to use, to control an intimate partner. The two key elements are threat and control. Domestic violence can take various forms:

Physical – Violent actions such as hitting, beating, pushing, and kicking. In many cases physical abuse becomes more frequent and severe over time.

Sexual – Includes any sexual acts that are forced on one partner by the other

Psychological – Includes a wide range of behaviors such as intimidation, isolating the victim from friends and family, controlling where the victim goes, making the victim feel guilty or crazy, and making unreasonable demands…

Read more: http://www.foryourmarriage.org/everymarriage/overcoming-obstacles/domestic-violence/